Tea ceremony: a Great influence on the development of various aspects of culture
A great influence on the development of various aspects of culture (architecture, gardens, design and applied arts) provided the development of so-called tea ceremony (cha, but Yu). Originally developed in the Zen monasteries, the custom of drinking for courage rare, privozni from China drink — tea — in the XV—XVI centuries became widespread in aristocratic circles and samurai. Strict ritual thee but Yu was developed by a Buddhist monk Murat Suka when shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1449-1490). The ceremony began to lead the special masters tea (Tzipi), which became a great influence o the higher of the samurai, Tim including representatives Segui tion, and and court aristocracy. Activity still* famous masters of tea, as Noami (XV century), Senna Ricca (XVI century), Soami (XVI century), and later Furuta Oribe (XVII C.) 1 had a huge impact not only on the formation of Kano! a new tea ceremony, but in the whole artistic culture of Japan!
Original tea ceremony was held in fenced off the screen part of the dwelling. In the XV century began to build some small-scale pavilions, reminiscent of a peasant hut with thatched hipped roof. Rigour and an ascetic simplicity was the main cause which determined the external and internal appearance of the tea pavilion (tesico) – wooden or bamboo frame with earthen or clay plaster, smooth, unadorned stucco walls of quiet tones, bamboo ceiling, small Windows re setchatye sliding frames, covered with thick white paper. Weak diffused light, coming in Tasucu, was to promote an atmosphere of calm, concentration, mood for contemplation and aesthetic perception of all the surrounding. The only decoration, and artistic center of the teahouse was the tokonoma, in which was placed the^scroll of monochrome painting and a bouquet of flowers, usually define the main theme of the ceremony, her philosophical moods. The desire to make the tea pavilion is a place of seclusion of the adepts of the sect of Zen
mon ” umnogo world, contemplation – m p.
posti and philosophical thinking im determined and im>s a number of statutes , CH tea ceremony. in lainach the most famous master of the tea Senno Rikyu (1521 — 1591). He measured the tea silona only four I solovinoj the tatami (the eye is 7.3 square meters), counting the area just to the thread participants in the ceremony.
In addition to the usual entrance from the back side of Domino /pioj tajine arranged – I And the entrance for guests — NID – srigate. Constructive reduction — in fact to the size of a manhole (90X90 cm) was justified not only by reducing the size of iliriana, but the SIM noliday that Padawan ü Senno Rikyu every detail — the low lintel migogo forced to bow their heads, consequently, the “equalized” in the tea bikelane representatives of all social strata.
The symbolic importance was one of the supporting pillars of okonomi — daimyo-Basir. Raw, preserving ghial the bark of the tree was supposed to represent the unbreakable link in – Trier with nature.
An integral part of the teahouse was small and quiet pypy garden — taneva, with dense vegetation, with paths in flat stones for solitary walks, with a stone lantern and stone vessels for water — tsukubai. Developing details in the tea pavilion, Senno Rikyu wanted to make a con – t Rurouni gardens and teahouse aesthetic principle of Sabi, harmonic fusion of simple and exquisite, sad and calm, as if bearing the patina of time.
The earliest surviving up to our days the tea PA – milonov are considered including Tokudo (1485), Silver PA – Pilona (1489), the monastery Sayhodzi (end XVI century). The standard pavilion and tea garden is famous Taen a garden in crime Makian (around Kyoto), established in 1573, Sanno 1 ICU.
The simple and clean designs the tea pavilion provide. whether the influence on the formation in the XVI century national home, and that is the greatest achievement of Japanese architecture feudal period.