Stone Fruit crops
Stone fruit crops — plants with fruit — unilocular drupes, consisting of hard bone, covered with a juicy edible pulp. Stone fruits: cherry, sweet cherry, plum, apricot, peach of the family Rosaceae. They occupy about third of area of fruit plantations of our country. Grow them in different areas.
Abroad a cherry and plum cultivated mainly in the Northern hemisphere — Central and South Europe, North Africa, East Asia, North America. The main producers of apricot and peach are Italy, USA, Turkey. Large areas of these crops in France, Bulgaria, Japan and other countries.
Stone fruit culture has received such wide distribution due to their many positive properties. In the fourth year after planting stone fruit already. The fruits of some of them, such as sweet cherry, ripening very early, and the population receives the fruit at the end of may. The fruit is delicious and healthy: rich in carbohydrates, acids, vitamins. They are used fresh and for processing.
Many stone fruits each year give a good harvest. To them in the first place is draining, for which the yields of 15-20 t is a common phenomenon. The drupaceous fruits of different varieties ripen at different time. Planting in the garden varieties with early, medium and late timing of fruiting, you can remove the harvest over several weeks to extend the season and receive fresh fruit.
Cherry is widely distributed in the gardens of the middle and southern areas of fruit growing, stone fruit is among the most winter-hardy culture. In hardiness it is equivalent to Apple, but better tolerate drought. Cherry begins to bear fruit 3-5 years after planting, every year gives high yields up to 10 t/ha and relatively demanding on growing conditions.
By the nature of the growth and fruiting cherries are divided into Bush and tree. Bush cherries bear fruit on 2‑3rd year after planting, their durability is 15-20 years. They are very hardy. These include such well known varieties as the Vladimir, the Lot, Lubka. Cherry tree is a tree with a height of 5-7 m. They are less hardy than shrub. Live 20-30 years. The best varieties — Anadolsky, early English, Amoral pink, Podbelskogo.
In the gardens of the southern regions of our country grows one of the types of cherries — sweet cherry. Cherry trees can reach 30 m in height and live up to 80 years. Cherry — a light-loving breed, in the shadow of the trees grow weak, stretch and do not produce fruit. In comparison with cherries cherries are more demanding to moisture. Common varieties of Drogan yellow, pink Napoleon, Diber black.
Plum pretty early, already in 5-7 years, gives a full crop. The average lifespan of this tree is 15 to 20 years.
In our country, draining two groups of varieties — Hungarian and gages. All grades United in the group of Hungarian, are trees or shrubs to a height of 4-6 m. Fruit 4-5‑th year. Productivity is high and annual (15-30 kg, sometimes up to 100 kg per tree). Fruits of different shapes — from oblong-oval to round, but definitely a blue-purple color. Gages have fruits more spherical, predominantly green. The Botanical genus belongs also plum the cherry plum and the sloe. Best plum varieties — Renclod Altana, Hungarian Italian, Anna Shpet.
In the gardens of Central Asia, the Caucasus, North Caucasus, southern Ukraine and Moldova is widely spread apricot. The most characteristic properties of this plant are extremely intensive growth and early entry into fruition. Under favorable conditions, at a young age annual growth of apricot reaches 1.5 m Apricot is a sun — loving, early bloomer, non-frost resistant. But it tolerates drought, because it develops a strong root system.
The fruits of apricot gives in July, yield is 10-12 t/ha (100-150 kg per tree). The best varieties is Ruddy, the representatives of YSU were received (Salah), Nikitsky early.